Dr. Arthur Scherbius begins manufacturing the Enigma machine, capable of transcribing coded information. Enigma is later used by the German forces in WWII.
Timeline: Digital Technology and Preservation
"Bomba," a highly specific electro-mechanical device, successfully decodes many German Luftwaffe and Navy messages for the Allies.
Construction of the ENIAC, one of the first electronic computers, is completed. ENIAC filled an entire room, weighed thirty tons, and consumed two hundred kilowatts of power.
Grace Hopper finds the first computer bug. A moth had been caught in the circuitry of the Mark II computer system at Harvard.
The first commercial computer, UNIVAC I, is introduced.
Introduction of DIGITAL's PDP-8, the world's first mass-produced minicomputer.
UNIX Time Sharing System First Edition is patented by Bell Labs.
Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game.
Intel introduces its 200-KHz 8008 chip, the first commercial 8-bit microprocessor. This sparks the development of smaller, faster, and cheaper computers.
Xerox Alto is the first personal computer with a built-in mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI) from which most modern GUIs are derived.
The Altair 8800 is sold as a kit. Its creator, Ed Roberts, coins the term "personal computer."
The Kurzweil Reading Machine combines omni-font OCR, flat-bed scanners, and text-to-speech synthesis to create the first print-to-speech reading machine for the blind. This is the first practical application of OCR technology.
First appearance of an interpreted BASIC programming language.
Introduction of the VAX-11/780 "supermini" computer.
CP/M Operating system developed by Digital Research Corporation becomes the dominant standard for the personal computer in business, but incompatible floppy disk formats and the success of MS-DOS and the IBM PC in 1981 eventually led to its demise.
The VMS 1.0 operating system is designed by Digital in conjunction with their 32-bit VAX processor for use in time sharing, batch processing, and transaction processing.
Philips releases the laserdisc player.
WordStar software becomes the first commercially successful word processor.
FORTRAN 77 programming language is created.
Digital faxes using uniform data standards appear.
Apple's Lisa is introduced, the first commercial microcomputer with a graphical user interface.
As personal computers become more powerful, people become accustomed to faster machines and graphical interfaces. Use shifts from centralized mainframes to personal computers distributed over a network.
Philips and Sony introduce CD-ROM technology.
Apple Macintosh is introduced, the first mainstream commercial computer with a graphical user interface. In six months sales of the computer reach 100,000.
The combination of Aldus PageMaker for the Macintosh and the Apple LaserWriter laser printer usher in the era of desktop publishing.
A Carnegie Mellon doctoral student named Feng-hsiung Hsu begins to develop a chess-playing computer called "Chiptest," which evolves into Deep Blue.
Microsoft Windows 1.0 is created, representing a shift from the DOS operating system.
NCSA develops NCSA telnet, making it easier to connect to a remote computer.
IBM sends clone manufacturers letters demanding retroactive licensing fees.
Microsoft Windows 3.0 is released, beginning the era of Microsoft's domination of the software industry.
Archie software for searching FTP sites is released.
Veronica, a Gopher search engine, is released.
IEEE1394, a.k.a Firewire, is introduced as a new standard for connecting computer devices. Initially proposed as a successor to SCSI, Firewire’s fast data transfer speeds made it well suited for video devices, such as digital camcorders, and hard drives.
Iomega debuts high-capacity drives "Jaz" and "Zip".
Java, an object-oriented programming language, is announced by Sun.
The Xerox DocuTech Publishing System is designed for "print-on-demand" network accessed document publishing.
The Kodak DC40 and the Apple QuickTake 100 become the first digital cameras marketed for consumers.
Internet Explorer 2.0 web browser is introduced.
MP-3 players for downloaded Internet audio appear.
Apple introduces the iMac, which revolutionized the PC industry with its design, along with some key features such as the inclusion of USB ports and the purposeful exclusion of a floppy drive.
Microsoft Windows 98 is released.
A commercial Digital Video Recording (DVR) system is developed by TiVo, Inc. Reruns of Columbo can now be recorded digitally, saved, and viewed anytime.
Macintosh OS X is released.
After 21 years of selling hard drives, Quantum switches to higher-level storage products and services.
Windows XP is released.
QuickTime 6.0 is released.
Universal Serial Bus 2.0 (USB) is released. Building on USB 1.0 introduced in 1995, this serial bus can connect up to 127 devices, supports speeds of up to 480Mbps, allows plug-and-play and hot-swapping.
Apple's family of personal music players, the iPod, dominates the market with over 5.7 million units sold since their debut in late 2001.
Version 1.0 of the open source iRODS, a data grid software system, is released by the San Diego Supercomputer Center's Data Intensive Cyber Environments (DICE) group.
First iPad released.
DataUp tool merges with data sharing platform, DASH.